Bone resorption will occur at sites of inflammation or prolonged excessive stimulation. The main contributing factors to bone resorption are local inflammation from plaque accumulation and trauma from occlusion. Periodontal disease from plaque inflammatory response, and subsequent bone resorption can result from the following:
- Direct action of plaque products on bone progenitor cells induce their differentiation into osteoclasts.
- Plaque products directly on bone, destroying it through a non cellular mechanism.
- Plaque products stimulate gingival cells, causing them to release mediators which in turn induce bone progenitor cells to differentiate in osteoclasts.
- Plaque products cause gingival cells to release agents that can act as cofactors in bone resorption.
- Plaque products cause gingival cells to release agents that destroy bone by direct chemical action without osteoclasts.