Osseointegration is defined as a direct bone anchorage to an implant body which can provide a foundation to support a prosthesis. There are many factors that influence osseointegration. Among the key factors for successful osseintegration of dental implants are: characteristics of implant material, design of the implant fixture, prevention of excessive heat during implantation etc.
The first factor pertains to characteristics of implant material. In titanium implant, an oxied layer forms when it comes into contact with the atmosphere. When the fixture has osseointegrated, this oxied layer is surrounded by a glycoprotein layer then a calcified layer.
The 2nd factor is the design of the implant fixture. The implant fixture has a threaded surface. The threads create a larger surface area. They also balance the force distribution into surrounding bone. The treads also play a role in initial implant fixation.
The 3rd factor for successful osseointegration is the prevention of excessive heat during implantation. Ideally, heat during drilling procedures should not exceed 39 C.The maximum speed during drilling should be under 2,000 r.p.m. Tapping for threading and fixture intallation should be between 15-20 r.p.m.
The 4th factor pertains pertains to “No loading while healing”. It is required that the implant fixtures left undisturbed for 6 months in maxilla and 3-4 months in the mandible.