Dental implant fixtures under occlusal loads are surrounded by cortical and spongy bone. When osseointegration is commenced and the denture is designed for good stress distribution, cortical bone forms along the implant fixture surface a few millimeters in thickness. The cortical bone to implant surface interface has canaliculi participating in electrolyte transportation near the oxide layer. A network of collagen fibers bundles surround the osteocytes and insert into a glycoprotein layer. The haversian bone is well organized and forms osteon.
Osseointegration in spongy bone occurs as bone trabeculae approach the implant and come into intimate contact with the oxide layer. Blood vessels providing nutrition and bone remodelling occur at the bone trabeculae and surround the fixture surface. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts increase in number and change shape when closer to the implant surface then attach to the oxide layer.
Ground substance forms and fills spaces between bone trabeculae. It fuses with the oxide layer.